Jun, 30, 2024

Vol.57 No.3

학회 연락처


The Korean Society of Surface Science and Engineering 2024;57(3):
A review : atomic layer etching of metals

장윤종a, 길홍성a, 김경찬a, 김주영c, 박우창a, 편도성d, 이지연d, 염근영a,b,c*

a School of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 16419, Republic of Korea b SKKU Advanced Institute of Nano Technology (SAINT), Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 16419, Republic of Korea c Department of Photovoltaic System Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 16419, Republic of Korea d Department of Semiconductor Display Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 16419, Republic of Korea

The Korean Society of Surface Science and Engineering Vol. 57, No. 3, pp. 125-139.


As the limits of semiconductor integration are approached, the challenges in semiconductor processes have intensified. And, for the production of semiconductors with dimensions under a few nanometers and to resolve the issues related to nanoscale device fabrication, research on atomic layer etching (ALE) technology has been conducted. The investigation related to ALE encompasses not only silicon and dielectric materials but also metallic materials. Particularly, there is an increasing need for ALE in next-generation metal materials that could replace copper in interconnect materials. This brief review will summarize the concept and methods of ALE and describe recent studies on potential next-generation metal replacements for copper, along with their ALE processes.


atomic layer etching (ALE); metal; plasma ALE; thermal ALE.

부식 방지제에 따른 코발트의 화학 기계적 연마 특성 및 표면 분석

정은수, 표성규*

중앙대학교 융합공학부

The Korean Society of Surface Science and Engineering Vol. 57, No. 3, pp. 140-154.


As the trend towards miniaturization in semiconductor integration process, the limitations of interconnection metals such as copper, tungsten have become apparent, prompting research into the emergence of new materials like cobalt and emphasizing the importance of studying the corresponding process conditions. During the chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) process, corrosion inhibitors are added to the slurry, forming passivation layers on the cobalt surface, thereby playing a crucial role in controlling the dissolution rate of the metal surface, enhancing both removal rate and selectivity. This review investigates the understanding of the cobalt polishing process and examines the characteristics and behavior of corrosion inhibitors, a type of slurry additive, on the cobalt surface. Among the corrosion inhibitors examined, benzotriazole (BTA), 1,2,4-triazole (TAZ), and potassium oleate (PO) all improved surface characteristics through their interaction with cobalt. These findings provide important guidelines for selecting corrosion inhibitors to optimize CMP processes for cobalt-based semiconductor materials. Future research should explore combinations of various corrosion inhibitors and the development of new compounds to further enhance the efficiency of semiconductor processes.


Chemical Mechanical Polishing; Corrosion Inhibitor; Passivation layer; Slurry.

열플라즈마를 이용한 탄소 나노 물질의 합성 및 특성에 관한 연구

강성표, 김태희*

원광대학교 화학공학과

The Korean Society of Surface Science and Engineering Vol. 57, No. 3, pp. 155-164.


Physical properties of carbon nanomaterials are dependent on their nanostructures and they are modified by diverse synthesis methods. Among them, thermal plasma method stands out for synthesizing carbon nanomaterials by controlling chemical and physical reactions through various design and operating conditions such as plasma torch type, plasma gas composition, power capacity, raw material injection rate, quenching rate, kinds of precursors, and so on. The method enables the production of carbon nanomaterials with various nanostructures and characteristics. The high-energy integration at high-temperature region thermal plasma to the precursor is possible to completely vaporize precursors, and the vaporized materials are rapidly condensed to the nanomaterials due to the rapid quenching rate by sharp temperature gradient. The synthesized nanomaterials are averagely in several nanometers to 100 nm scale. Especially, the thermal plasma was validated to synthesize low-dimensional carbon nanomaterials, carbon nanotubes and graphene, which hold immense promise for future applications.


carbon nanomaterials; synthesis; thermal plasma; nanomaterials.

반도체 메모리 소자 제조에서 High Aspect Ratio Contact 식각 연구 동향

탁현우a, 박명호b, 이준수c, 최찬혁b, 김봉선a, 장준기a, 김은구d, 김동우a, 염근영a,b,c,*

a성균관대학교 신소재공학과, b성균관대학교 나노과학기술학과, c성균관대학교 태양광시스템공학협동과정, d성균관대학교 반도체디스플레이공학과

The Korean Society of Surface Science and Engineering Vol. 57, No. 3, pp. 165-178.


In semiconductor memory device manufacturing, the capability for high aspect ratio contact (HARC) etching determines the density of memory device. Given that there is no standardized definition of "high" in high aspect ratio, it is crucial to continuously monitor recent technology trends to address technological gaps. Not only semiconductor memory manufacturing companies such as Samsung Electronics, SK Hynix, and Micron but also semiconductor manufacturing equipment companies such as Lam Research, Applied Materials, Tokyo Electron, and SEMES release annual reports on HARC etching technology. Although there is a gap in technological focus between semiconductor mass production environments and various research institutes, the results from these institutes significantly contribute by demonstrating fundamental mechanisms with empirical evidence, often in collaboration with industry researchers. This paper reviews recent studies on HARC etching and the study of dielectric etching in various technologies.


High Aspect Ratio Contact(HARC) Etching; Dielectric Etching; Silicon Oxide Etching; Silicon Nitride Etching; Memory Device Manufacturing.

Enhanced Photocatalytic Disinfection Efficiency through TiO2/WO3 Composite Synthesis and Heat Treatment Optimization

Sang-Hee Kima, Seo-Hee Kimb, Jun Kangc, Myeong-Hoon Leed, Yong-Sup Yuna,*

aDepartment of Coast Gurad Sutdies, National Korea Maritime and Ocean University, Busan 49112, Korea bDepartment of Ocean Advanced Materials Convergence Engineering, National Korea Maritime and Ocean University, Busan 49112, Korea cDepartment of Marine System Engineering, National Korea Maritime and Ocean University, Busan 49112, Korea dKorea Institute of Corrosion Science and Technology, National Korea Maritime and Ocean University, Busan 49112, Korea

The Korean Society of Surface Science and Engineering Vol. 57, No. 3, pp. 179-191.


This study focuses on improving the photocatalytic degradation efficiency by synthesizing a TiO2/WO3 composite. Given the environmental significance of photocatalysis and the limitations posed by TiO2's large bandgap and high electron recombination rate, we explored doping, surface modification, and synthesis strategies. The composite was created using a ball mill process and heat treatment, analyzed with field emission scanning electron microscope, high resolution X-ray diffraction, Raman microscope, and UV-Vis/NIR spectrometer to examine its morphology, composition and absorbance. We found that incorporating WO3 into the TiO2 lattice forms a Wx-Ti1-x-O2 solution, with optimal WO3 content reducing the band gap and enhancing sterilization efficiency by inhibiting the anatasese to rutile transition. This contributes to the field by offering a way to overcome TiO2's limitations and improve photocatalytic performance.


TiO2; WO3; Photocatalysis; Ball mill; Heat treatment

구리 배관의 Sn 첨가에 따른 응력 및 다양한 환경에서의 부식 특성

김세림a, 김의준a, 이명훈b, 이승효a,*

a한국해양대학교 해양신소재융합공학과, b한국부식방식연구센터

The Korean Society of Surface Science and Engineering Vol. 57, No. 3, pp. 192-200.


Cu as a heat exchanger tube is an important component in thermal fluid transfer. However, Cu tubes are exposed to stress in certain environments, leading to stress corrosion cracking (SCC). In this study, the effect of Sn addition on microstructure and corrosion characteristics was examined. The microstructural examination revealed the presence of columnar crystal and a grain refinement due to the addition of Sn. Electrochemical measurements showed that the 5 wt.% NH3 environment was the most vulnerable environment to Cu corrosion, and the corrosion current density increased as stress increased. The immersion test exhibited the formation of Cu2O and Cu(OH)2 corrosion product in 3.5 wt.% NaCl and 5 wt.% NH3 environments, respectively. Results indicated that Sn addition to Cu was an important factor in improving the mechanical strength.


Cu tube; Sn addition; U-bending; Stress corrosion cracking (SCC); Immersion test; Corrosion characteristics.

Al6061 합금의 양극산화 봉공 처리 방법에 따른 양극산화 피막의 내화학 특성 비교

한영욱a, 이상섭a, 이준석a 장기범b, 조성열a,*

a(주)영광와이케이엠씨 연구개발센터, b(주)영광와이케이엠씨

The Korean Society of Surface Science and Engineering Vol. 57, No. 3, pp. 201-207.


This study compared the chemical resistance properties according to various sealing treatment methods for the anode film formed during the anodization process of Al6061 alloy. Al6061 aluminum was used in four different sealing treatment methods: boiling water sealing, lithium sealing, nickel sealing, and pressurized sealing, and each sample was evaluated for corrosion resistance through a 5% HCl bubble test and the microstructure was observed through a scanning electron microscope(SEM). According to the results, corrosion resistance increased as time and temperature increased in all sealing treatment methods. Relatively, corrosion resistance was high in the order of boiling water sealing, lithium sealing, nickel sealing, and pressure sealing, and the best corrosion resistance was found in pressure sealing. These research results can be helpful in selecting a process necessary to improve the efficiency and performance of anodizing process in the industrial field using aluminum alloys.


Anodizing; Oxide film; Al6061 alloy; Sulfuric acid anodizing; Sealing; Acid resistance; Hydrogen Chloride bubble stream.

식각공정의 신뢰성 향상을 위한 모니터링 기술에 관한 연구


대전대학교 반도체공학과

The Korean Society of Surface Science and Engineering Vol. 57, No. 3, pp. 208-213.


With the development of industry, miniaturization and densification of semiconductor components are rapidly progressing. Particularly, as demand surges across various sectors, efficiency in productivity has emerged as a crucial issue in semiconductor component manufacturing. Maximizing semiconductor productivity requires real-time monitoring of semiconductor processes and continuous reflection of the results to stabilize processes. However, various unexpected variables and errors in judgment that occur during the process can cause significant losses in semiconductor productivity. Therefore, while the development of a reliable manufacturing system is important, the importance of developing sensor technology that can complement this and accurately monitor the process is also growing. In this study, conducted a basic research on the concept of diagnostic sensors for thickness based on the physical changes of thin films due to etching. It observed changes in resistance corresponding to variations in thin film thickness as etching processes progressed, and conducted research on the correlation between these physical changes and thickness variations. Furthermore, to assess the reliability of thin film thickness measurement sensors, it conducted multiple measurements and comparative analyses of physical changes in thin films according to various thicknesses.


Plasma; Atomic Layer Etching; Thickness; Thin Film, Sensor.

단일벽 탄소나노튜브를 이용한 리튬이온전지용 실리콘-흑연 기반 복합전극 설계

최진영a, 최정민b, 이승효c, 강준d, 김대욱a, 김혜민d*

a한국생산기술연구원 울산본부 저탄소에너지그룹, b한국해양대학교 해양인공지능융합전공, c한국해양대학교 해양신소재융합공학과, d한국해양대학교 기관시스템공학부

The Korean Society of Surface Science and Engineering Vol. 57, No. 3, pp. 214-220.


In this study, three-dimensional (3D) networks structure using single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) for Si-graphite composite electrode was developed and studied about effects on the electrochemical performances. To investigate the effect of SWCNTs on forming a conductive 3D network structure electrode, zero-dimensional (0D) carbon black and different SWCNTs composition electrode were compared. It was found that SWCNTs formed a conductive network between nano-Si and graphite particles over the entire area without aggregation. The formation of 3D network structure enabled to effective access for lithium ions leading to improve the c-rate performance, and provided cycle stability by alleviating the Si volume expansion from flexibility and buffer space. The results of this study are expected to be applicable to the electrode design for high-capacity lithium-ion batteries.


Silicon; Composite electrode; Lithium-ion batteries; Carbon nanotube; 3D network.

전해연마를 이용한 STS 304의 부식방지 효과 연구

오재환, 김우혁, 조혜원, 곽병관, 윤상화, 유봉영*

한양대학교 재료화학공학과

The Korean Society of Surface Science and Engineering Vol. 57, No. 3, pp. 221-224.


The 304 stainless steel has good corrosion resistance, so it is used in various industries. However, in an environment like seawater, stainless steel can be damaged by chloride ions, resulting in surface corrosion such as pitting and crevice corrosion. Electropolishing is a technique that smooths the surface and creates a passivation layer that can resist corrosion. In this study, electropolishing was applied as a surface finish to increase the smoothness of the metal surface and its corrosion resistance. We confirmed the topology of the electropolished surface of stainless steel by optical microscope and evaluated the corrosion resistance characteristics of electropolished stainless steel through a potentiodynamic experiment.


STS 304; Electropolishing; Corrosion resistance.